- c 1943-2010 (Creation)
Level of description
Extent and medium
163 boxes; 40 photographic boxes, 1 box of fabric patches and 12 oversize boxes.
Name of creator
American Memorial Room opened in Norwich Central Library, Bethel Street, 1963. Dedication ceremony for Memorial Room, 13 June 1963. American Memorial Room destroyed in Norwich Central Library fire, 1994. Temporary Memorial Library opens within temporary Norwich Central Library, Ber Street, Norwich, 28 February 1995. New 2nd Air Division Memorial Library opened within the Norwich and Norfolk Millennium Library in the Forum, Norwich, 1 November 2001. Dedication ceremony for new Memorial Library, 7 November 2001.\r\nFirst proposals for a memorial to the personnel of the 2nd Air Division in East Anglia who lost their lives during the Second World War, 1945. The Memorial Trust of the 2nd Air Division founded with aim of bringing the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library into being, 1945. Administered by the Memorial Trust of the 2nd Air Division.\r\nThe 2nd Air Division Memorial Library grew from funds raised in 1945 by 2nd Air Division personnel, which were placed under the care of the Memorial Trust of the 2nd Air Division, United States Army Air Force (USAAF). The dedication of the 2nd Air Division Memorial Room took place on 13 June 1963. The room housed the Roll of Honor, as well as a collection of books on the 2nd Air Division and various other aspects of American life and culture. In addition, a Memorial Fountain, complete with stones from all 50 states in the United States, was built outside.\r\nOn 1 August 1994, a fire broke out in the Norwich Central Library destroying most of the books, the original Roll of Honor, and display items in the Memorial Room. The 2nd Air Division archive, held by the Norfolk Record Office and located in the basement of the building, was not destroyed by the fire. Following the 1994 Norwich Central Library Fire, the 2nd Air Division Memorial Room was housed temporarily in Noverre House, Norwich, and then longer-term in Glasswells, 71 Ber Street, Norwich. On 1 November 2001, the new 2nd Air Division Memorial Library was opened in The Forum.\r\nFulbright Librarians and American Scholars:\r\nThrough funds raised by the 2nd Air Division Association, an American Fulbright scholar was appointed annually between 1986-2007 to work as part of the Memorial Library team. Since then, two scholarships have been awarded to American post-graduate students studying at the University of East Anglia.
Name of creator
Part of the United States Army Air Force 2nd Air Division, 8th Air Force.
The United States Eighth Air Force (hereafter the 8th Air Force) was composed of three Air Divisions, each with fighter units and maintenance organizations to support the bomber operations. The 1st Air Division (in the Huntingdon area) and the 3rd Air Division (in Suffolk and Southwest Norfolk) were equipped with Boeing B-17 Fortress bombers. The 2nd Air Division (based in Norfolk and northeast Suffolk) flew Consolidated B-24 Liberators (hereafter B-24s).
The 2nd Air Division evolved out of the reorganization of VIII Bomber Command into the 8th Air Force. Starting as the Second Bomb Wing, it became the Second Bomb Division and after a fighter wing (the 65th Fighter Wing) was assigned, in September 1944, it was redesignated the 2nd Air Division in January 1945. At full strength, the 2nd Air Division had 14 bomb groups all of which are represented in this archive. Each airbase was occupied by a single bomb group consisting of four flying bomb squadrons, a squadron having an average complement of 12 to 16 B-24 aircraft and 200 combat airmen. For every man in the air there were approximately another seven to ten on the ground engaged in support activities ranging from cooks, clerks, mechanics, armourers, medics, military policemen and administrators. Total personnel on a bomber station varied between two and three thousand.
During the Second World War, the 65th Fighter Wing's, main role was to escort bombers attacking industrial targets, weapons sites and transport networks in Europe. They also strafed and attacked enemy airfields and other targets. A typical fighter group had three fighter squadrons of about 30 aircraft. The 65th Fighter Wing mostly flew P-51 'Mustangs' or P-47 'Thunderbolts'.
The 2nd Air Division was engaged primarily in strategic bombing against enemy targets in Europe between 7 November 1942 and 25 April 1945. During this period, Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command concentrated on night attacks while the 8th Air Force operated mainly in daylight. A total of 95,948 sorties were flown in 493 operational missions by the 2nd Air Division's B-24s, dropping 199,883 tons of bombs. Targets ranged from Norway in the north, to Poland and Romania in the east, while several Mediterranean countries were reached from temporary bases in North Africa. In addition, 10 crews of the 458th Bomb Group were specially trained in the use of Azon experimental smart-bombs, although this experiment was later abandoned. Six 2nd Air Division groups received special presidential citations for outstanding actions and five airmen received the Medal of Honor (the highest United States award for bravery), four posthumously. In combat, the 2nd Air Division gunners claimed 1,079 enemy fighters destroyed against losses of 1,458 B-24s missing in action and others damaged in accidents. A total of 6,700 men serving with the 2nd Air Division lost their lives during the conflict. A typical tour of operations was initially 25 missions, later rising to 30, and finally to 35 missions. At one time, the chance of an individual airman completing a tour of operations was as little as one in three.
The 2nd Air Division also took part in non-combat 'trucking' missions flown by pared down crews without bombardiers and gunners to deliver fuel and cargo supplies to land-based forces in France. In addition, the 492nd Bomb Group were known as the 'Carpetbaggers' for their flying of low-level, night-time, special operations to deliver supplies to resistance groups in enemy occupied countries. Towards the end of operations in the European Theatre, trolley missions were flown to take ground crews and dignitaries on low-altitude flights to see the results of combat missions on the ground.
The B-24 'Liberator', nicknamed by some as the 'Ugly Duckling', had a wing span of 110 feet (33.5 metres) and a gross weight of more than 30 tons. B-24 crews commonly personalised their aircraft, giving them names and painting the noses with individual artwork. The crew varied from eight to ten men and would typically include the pilot, co-pilot, navigator, radio operator, engineer, bombardier and gunners.
After take-off, large formations of about 20 to 40 bomber aircraft, would assemble behind a uniquely marked, and usually brightly coloured, assembly ship (otherwise known as a formation or lead aircraft), while climbing to operational altitude. Such an assembly was despatched from a single airfield and joined with other formations to form a division column of perhaps 500 to 600 bombers. On reaching the target, each formation released its bombs on the aim and signal of the lead aircraft. Lead navigators were more experienced and were assigned to different lead crews when their particular skills were required. H2X radar (or 'Mickey' set named for the supposed resemblance of the early sets to Mickey Mouse) was an American development of the British H2S radar, the first ground mapping radar to be used in combat. Those missions where bombing was done by H2X were called 'Pathfinder missions' and the crews were 'Pathfinder crews'. In combat areas the 'Mickey' operator directed the pilot on headings to be taken, and on the bomb run directed the aircraft in coordination with the bombardier.
Flying the B-24 was dangerous and uncomfortable for the airmen. They endured cramped conditions on a mission, which usually lasted between four and ten hours, and were exposed to constant noise and vibration. High altitudes necessitated uncomfortable oxygen masks and temperatures could reach down to minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit. The aircraft were vulnerable to enemy anti-aircraft fire ('flak') and fighter attacks, but many crew members were able to parachute to safety over land (becoming eligible for membership of the Caterpillar Club) or to bail out or ditch over sea (becoming eligible for membership of the Goldfish Club). Other downed crew members successfully evaded enemy capture (often with the help of allied resistance movements) to return to duty or were held as internees if captured in a neutral country. Others were captured by enemy hands and held as prisoners of war. Some of these prisoners were among the approximately 80,000 Allied prisoners of war compelled to take part in 'forced marches' between camps westward across Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Germany, from January to April 1945.
The 2nd Air Division Headquarters was initially based at Old Catton, then at Horsham St. Faith's airbase, and from late 1943 it moved to its final base at Ketteringham Hall, six miles south-west of Norwich. Many members of the Women's Army Corps (WACs) were stationed at Headquarters, in addition to those stationed at airbases in Norfolk, where they usually undertook clerical and communication work.
Accommodation for enlisted men on an airbase was typically in a steel Nissen hut (similar to the American 'Quonset' hut), heated by a single wood-burning stove. Leisure facilities on the bases would typically include an officers' mess, canteen and theatre. American Red Cross (ARC) workers (usually female) also provided food and entertainment to the bases and at ARC Service clubs in cities across the country. Personnel were able to leave the base on short passes to visit local towns and villages, or spend time with local families. Longer leave furloughs were available and personnel would often travel to destinations across Britain; London and Edinburgh were popular. Some of the memorabilia collected by servicemen in this archive includes theatre programmes and tickets, photographs, postcards and short snorters. Short snorters are banknotes or, more commonly in this archive, small pieces of paper designed to resemble banknotes, intended to be signed by persons travelling together on a flight or at a social gathering. Various newsletters or 'poop sheets' were also printed by some bomb groups, and by Headquarters, to distribute important news and more light-hearted stories to service personnel.
Service personnel were restricted in what they could write home to friends and family, their mail being subject to careful censorship. In addition to normal telegrams and letters, a particular letter format called V-mail (short for Victory Mail) was also used. This was based on the British Airgraph system expediting the delivery of mail between those at home in the United States and those on active service abroad during the Second World War. V-mails were written on dedicated pro-forma letter-sheets which were then censored and photographed before being reduced to thumb-nail size on reels of microfilm. The film reels were sent by air freight to the United States, to receiving stations near the recipient for enlargement and printing, at about one-quarter of the original size on lightweight photograph paper, and delivery.
Some missions and military events are more fully represented than others in this archive. The following summary is not intended to be exhaustive, but to indicate some of those best represented in the records.
The Ploesti oil refinery, in Wallachia, Romania, was a key target because of its role in supporting the German war effort; it was thought to produce up to a third of Germany's fuel. Ploesti was also at the very flight range limit of the B-24 Liberator bomber (approximately 2,100 miles or 3,400 kilometres). Under 'Operation Tidal Wave', five groups of B-24 Liberators were allocated the task of bombing Ploesti: three of these groups, the 44th, 93rd and 389th, were from the 2nd Air Division. This operation involved more than 170 B-24 Liberator bombers, which took off from temporary desert bases near Benghasi, Libya, on 1 August 1943.
The lead aircraft (the B-24 'Wongo Wongo', piloted by Lt Brian Flavelle), crashed into the sea and navigational errors meant that some aircraft took a wrong turn on approaching the target. The area was well defended by German anti-aircraft ('flak') guns, and the B-24s were without their own fighter support. The attack destroyed about 40 per cent of the oil fields' capacity, some of which the Germans were able to rebuild, but more than 50 B-24s were destroyed and over 500 men were killed or wounded. More awards for bravery were issued for this mission than for any other mission flown by the 2nd Air Division during the Second World War.
The 'Big Week' and D-Day:
Early in 1944, plans were forming for an amphibious invasion of continental Europe (named 'Operation Overlord') by the Allied forces. The invasion was planned for May or June 1944, and became widely known as D-Day. Control of the air was necessary for the success of the amphibious landing and a 'Big Week' of intensive bomber and fighter attacks on German air depots and airfields was ordered as part of 'Operation Argument', 20 February 1944-25 February 1944. 2nd Air Division crews were also active on the coast of northern France in the days leading up to D-Day, and on 6 June 1944, D-Day itself, with the 446th Bomb Group the first over the beachhead.
In anticipation of the increased numbers of casualties from the D-Day advances, the Station Hospital near Wymondham was ordered to increase capacity from about 834 to 1254 beds. On 12 July 1944, medical supply personnel prepared 200 stretchers in two hours ready for the first mass admission of these battle casualties from a hospital train at Wymondham Station. Eight hospital trainloads, 2099 patients, were admitted to the hospital in 1944.
The 'Night of the Intruders':
On 22 April 1944, aircraft from the 44th, 93rd, 389th, 392nd, 445th, 446th, 448th, 453rd, 458th, 466th and 467th Bomb Groups were returning later than was usual from bombing missions to Germany. The airfield lights acted as beacons and their stream was infiltrated by German fighter aircraft on what became known as the 'Night of the Intruders'. In total, 14 aircraft were shot down and bombs were dropped on Rackheath airbase, killing a member of the ground crew, Pvt. Daniel Miney. He is the only member of ground crew listed on the 2nd Air Division's Roll of Honor as killed in action.
Notes on information provided about individual combat airmen and ranks:
The rank and unit of service for personnel and the crew position (for aircrew) have been noted wherever possible, as they appear in the documents. It has not always been possible to add whole histories of military careers and the rank and service history provided may not reflect a later promotion, or change. If you have any factual corrections to information in the catalogue, please contact the Norfolk Record Office. Abbreviations for ranks used in this catalogue:
Technical Sergeant (T/Sgt)
Master Sergeant (M/Sgt)
First Lieutenant (1st Lt)
Second Lieutenant (2nd Lt)
Records were donated to the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library by various donors, including some who are anonymous or unknown.
Immediate source of acquisition or transfer
The first deposit of records was received by the Norfolk Record Office on 27 July 1992. These records have reference numbers beginning MC 371. Additional deposits were received from 31 July 1992 onwards and were listed as MC 376/1-250. Records with reference numbers MC 376/251 onwards were received from 2 April 1997 and each deposit of records has its own accession number.
Content and structure area
Scope and content
This archive comprises a large and varied collection of documents relating to the Second Air Division, United States Army Air Force (hereafter 2nd Air Division, USAAF). They are records which veterans, their families, local people and researchers have chosen to donate to the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library, in order to preserve the history of the 2nd Air Division's presence in East Anglia, 1942-5. Most documents date from this period, but there are significant numbers of post-war documents relating, in particular, to veterans' reunions and memoirs. It should be noted that this is a commemorative collection and is not an official United States military archive, nor does it contain the official service records for individual personnel.
The archive contains many diaries, letters, photographs and memoirs relating to 2nd Air Division service personnel in their 'home from home' in Norfolk and East Anglia. A significant proportion of the records relate to the 2nd Air Division's bomb groups, as well as containing records about the 65th Fighter Wing, 2nd Air Division Headquarters and Women's Auxiliary Corps. The archive contains more records relating to the bomber crews, with relatively fewer records relating to the ground crews (who maintained the aircraft in flying condition) and affiliated support personnel (including administrators, medical staff, cooks etc.) even though they were greater in number than the combat air crews. Records relating to the ground crews are usually listed with the bomb groups in which they served. Some non-combat groups are more fully represented in the records than others. In particular, records of these groups include the 7th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, 231st and 77th Station Hospitals and the 987th Military Police Detachment.
The archive also contains some records, donated by veterans and their associates, relating more generally to wartime Norfolk. These include correspondence between veterans and local people, photographs of Norwich, local theatre programmes and guidebooks. There are also records relating to the activities of the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library, the 2nd Air Division Association, and the 2nd Air Division Memorial Trust. However, for business records of the Memorial Trust, please see catalogue reference SO 247.
As well as personal papers, there are copies of some official operational records, mainly movement orders, crew lists, unit citations, flight plans, navigation charts and copies of some mission reports and Missing Air Crew Reports. There are also copies of Record Site Plans of some Norfolk airbases, which are usually copies of Air Ministry plans.
However, except in a few cases, which are clearly marked in the catalogue, the archive does not contain copies of official service records for individual personnel. Official military service records are usually held by the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in the United States of America. On 12 July 1973, a fire at the NPRC destroyed approximately 16 to 18 million official military personnel files, including those of 75 percent of United States Air Force personnel discharged between 25 September 1947 and 1 January 1964, with names alphabetically after Hubbard, James E. Therefore, if you are searching for official military service records, we would advise you to seek guidance from NARA about these records. Further information is available from the NARA website: <www.archives.gov/st-louis/military-personnel> [accessed 7 December 2010].
This archive does contain copies of lists of names of those servicemen from each Bomb Group who were buried at the Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial at Madingley, or whose names appear on the Wall of the Missing there. These lists are arranged in this catalogue under each combat unit for which they are held. However, the archive does not usually contain burial records for individual servicemen. For further information about servicemen believed to have been interred in the cemetery, you are advised to contact the cemetery. For more information, see the American Battle Monuments Commission website: <www.abmc.gov/cemeteries/cemeteries/ca.php> [accessed 7 December 2010].
The archive also contains sound recordings collected as part of the 2nd Air Division's Personal History Programme. As part of the programme, veterans recorded their own memoirs, following questions published in the 2nd Air Division Association 'Journal', vol. 24, no. 4, (December 1985) and sent them to the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library. For a copy of the questions published in 'The Journal', see MC 376/423/4. In this catalogue, recordings which formed part of the Personal History Programme are listed under the name of the individual veteran who made the recording. A few earlier recordings, dating from 1983, were also included when these records were deposited at the Norfolk Record Office. It is unclear whether they are incorrectly dated, or whether a few earlier recordings were sent in as part of the programme. Some other recordings, not of the memoirs of individual veterans, were deposited at the Norfolk Record Office by the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library with those of the 2nd Air Division Personal History Programme. They do not appear to relate directly to the programme itself, although many were donated to the Library around the same time. These recordings have been listed under the relevant catalogue section to which they relate.
Other sound recordings collected by, or created on behalf of, the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library and relating to the activities of the 2nd Air Division are listed in the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library section of this catalogue. They include taped BBC radio broadcasts, recorded memoirs and interviews with veterans and local people.
For all catalogue descriptions, we have tried to give accurate spellings of personal names and to identify correct military ranks. However, this has sometimes been difficult, especially in the case of sound recordings, and if you think that an entry should be changed or corrected factually, please let the Norfolk Record Office know.
Appraisal, destruction and scheduling
System of arrangement
Wherever possible, records have been arranged under the name of the archive creator (usually a 2nd Air Division veteran) or, if this is unknown, the donor of the records. If neither is known, records have been listed in an anonymous donors' section at the beginning of the relevant part of the catalogue. If an individual served in more than one group, records have been placed under the group with which they first served, since this is usually most readily identifiable from the records. However, if their records relate only to one group in which they served, they have been listed under that group. It is possible that records relating to an individual may be in more than one section of the catalogue and, if you are looking for an individual, it is initially best to search this catalogue using their surname.
The archive is arranged as follows:
44th Bomb Group (Shipdham).
93rd Bomb Group (Hardwick).
389th Bomb Group (Hethel).
392nd Bomb Group (Wendling).
445th Bomb Group (Tibenham).
446th Bomb Group (Bungay).
448th Bomb Group (Seething).
453rd Bomb Group (Old Buckenham).
458th Bomb Group (Horsham St Faith).
466th Bomb Group (Attlebridge).
467th Bomb Group (Rackheath).
489th Bomb Group (Halesworth).
491st Bomb Group (Metfield then North Pickenham).
492nd Bomb Group (North Pickenham).
65th Fighter Wing (4th Fighter Group, 56th Fighter Group, 355th Fighter Group, 361st Fighter Group, 479th Fighter Group).
Women's Army Corps (WAC) Detachment.
2nd Air Division Headquarters (Ketteringham Hall).
Related Groups: 3rd Strategic Air Depot (Watton); 7th Photographic Reconnaissance Group; 18th Weather Squadron; 231st and 77th Station Hospitals (Morley, near Wymondham); 987th Military Police Detachment; American Red Cross Service Club; and Fighter Groups (not 2nd Air Division)
General documents relating to the activities of the 2nd Air Division: Organization and operations; aircraft information; maps and airfield locations; wartime Norfolk; papers of George Wright and the lead (assembly) aircraft project; miscellaneous photographs; and other documents.
2nd Air Division Memorial Library.
2nd Air Division Association.
2nd Air Division Memorial Trust.
Records covering multiple bomb groups and other units.
Records of post-war memorials, reunions and events which relate to individual groups are listed with the records of that group.
Conditions of access and use area
Conditions governing access
Permission of the 2nd Air Division Memorial Trust Librarian may be required to view some items in this archive, particularly the original fabric patches. Where this is the case, it has been noted on the catalogue entry for the individual item, with details of how to contact the Trust Librarian.
Some of the photographs in this archive are stored in special environmental conditions and need to be acclimatized for 24 hours before they can be produced in the Record Office searchroom. If you wish to view any items that have a reference containing 'USF PH', please order them at least 24 hours in advance. For example, if you intend to look at these items at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, they need to be ordered by 10.00 a.m. on Thursday. Items required for a Monday need to be ordered by Friday of the previous week.
Conditions governing reproduction
The Norfolk Record Office requires the permission of the 2nd Air Division Memorial Trust Librarian before we can supply copies of any documents in this archive, copyright permitting. Please contact the 2nd Air Division Memorial Trust Librarian: e-mail email@example.com; telephone, +44 (0) 01603 774747 and postal address, The 2nd Air Division (USAAF) Memorial Library, The Forum, Millennium Plain, Norwich, Norfolk, NR2 1AW, England.
If you are interested in copies of sound recordings in this archive, copying restrictions may apply. Please contact Norfolk Sound Archive staff for details: e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org; telephone, + 44 (0) 01603 222599 and postal address, Norfolk Record Office, The Archive Centre, Martineau Lane, Norwich, NR1 2DQ.
Language of material
Script of material
Language and script notes
Physical characteristics and technical requirements
The first deposit of records on 27 July 1992 came with an incomplete finding aid compiled by Dr. M. Levitt, a Fulbright scholar working in the Memorial Library. The finding aid was annotated with Norfolk Record Office (NRO) reference numbers prefixed MC 371 and placed in the searchroom.
A new, easier-to-use, list was drafted at the NRO based on the arrangement and descriptions in the original finding aid, but also including items received on transfer which were omitted from it. Before the draft was completed, it was decided that the Trust Librarian, Phyllis DuBois (hereafter PDB) should re-list the entire archive from scratch using the NRO numbers and, in view of this, the NRO draft was never finalized.
New deposits were received from 31 July 1992 onwards, but because of the decision for PDB to re-list the archive, they were allocated document references with the prefix MC 376. The accession received on 31 July 1992 was treated as an ordinary accession but, once PDB received Library approval to proceed with her revised list, later accessions were not listed by the NRO until her list was completed. Instead, each additional file came with a form describing its contents. The file was then numbered (for example, MC 376/123) and the number entered on the form which was then returned to PDB as a receipt. Copies of these forms are in the Archivist's storeroom, arranged numerically, but they do not appear to be a complete set.
This catalogue was converted to CALM, with some structural adjustments, by the NRO in 2006. All these lists and finding aids have now been superseded by the current version of the catalogue. No accessions paperwork survived the Library fire of 1994.
Between June 2010 and April 2011, as part of the Evelyn Cohen and Jordan Uttal Memorial Cataloguing Project, catalogue descriptions for 2nd Air Division, United States Army Air Force, records held at the NRO were updated and new deposits added to the catalogue.
This printed catalogue is generated from the original, electronic catalogue on NROCAT (http://nrocat.norfolk.gov.uk). The software which supports NROCAT does not allow for the use of italics and for this catalogue accents, such as those in some foreign names and words, have not been added. These limitations are reflected in this paper version.
Allied materials area
Existence and location of originals
Existence and location of copies
Related units of description
The following is a list of the main general histories and other sources used in compiling the above catalogue entry. Unless otherwise stated, the Norfolk Record Office holds reference copies of these publications and there are also copies in the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library's collection, available through the Norfolk Library Service. For publications and websites relating to individual combat units, or other groups, please see the relevant section of this catalogue.
Books and publications:
Stephen Ambrose, 'The Good Fight: How World War II was won' (New York, Atheneum Books, 2001).
Stephen Ambrose, 'The Victors: Eisenhower and His Boys: The Men of World War II' (New York, Touchstone, 1999).
Donald Albrecht, 'World War II and the American Dream' (Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1995).
Martin W. Bowman, 'Home by Christmas? The Story of US 8th/15th Air Force Airmen at War' (Wellinborough, Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1987).
Martin W. Bowman, 'Great American Air Battles of World War II' (Shrewsbury, Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1994).
Martin W. Bowman, 'The B-24 Liberator, 1939-45' (Wellinborough, Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1995).
Pat Carty, 'Secret Squardrons of the Eighth' (Stilwater, Minnesota, Speciality Press, 1990).
Roger A. Freeman, 'Second Air Division Memorial: 8th Air Force in the Central Library, Norwich, England' (Norwich, 1986).
Roger A. Freeman, 'Mighty Eighth War Manual' (London, 1986).
Roger A. Freeman, 'The Mighty Eighth War Diary '(London, 1996).
Roger A. Freeman, 'The Mighty Eighth: units, men and machines: a history of the US 8th Air Force' (London, 1970).
John Hane, 'Second Air Division Memorial: In memory of all those Americans who, flying from these bases and posts, gave their lives defending freedom, 1941-45' (Author, 1963). This publication contains a list of attached and detatched units for each combat group.
Roderick McKenzie, 'Ghost Fields of Norfolk: History, plans and photographed remains of 32 Norfolk airfields' (Fakenham, The Larks Press, 2004).
Graham Smith, 'The Mighty Eighth in the Second World War' (Newbury, Countryside Books Ltd., 2001).
Taylor, William B. (ed.) '14th Combat Wing' (East Anglian Books, 1997). Reprint of Newsfoto, 1945.
David Zellmer, 'The Spectator: A World War II bomber pilot's journal of the artist as warrior' (Westport, Connecticut, Praeger, 1999).
Websites and online resources:
'Airfields in the County of Norfolk, England': <www.norfolk-airfields.co.uk/> [accessed 7 December 2010].
American Battle Monuments Commission website: <www.abmc.gov/cemeteries/cemeteries/ca.php> [accessed 7 December 2010].
'Army Air Forces Stations', Captain Barry Anderson's website (Maxwell Air Force Base, January 1985), with list of Army Air Force (AAF) station numbers, available online at http://www.scribd.com/doc/1423777/US-Air-Force-usaaf-bases-in-united-kingdom [accessed 21 February 2011].
Control towers.co.uk: http://www.controltowers.co.uk/8%20list%201.htm.
'The Eighth Air Force in World War II' The Military History Group and Antique Militaria Network http://www.usaaf.com/8thaf/ [accessed 7 December 2010].
The Heritage League of the 2nd Air Division: <www.heritageleague.org> [accessed 7 December 2010]
Library of Congress, American Folklife Centre, Veterans' History Project: http://www.loc.gov/vets[accessed 7 December 2010]
Second Air Division Memorial Library website <www.2ndair.org.uk/Second_Air_Division/> [accessed 7 December 2010].
Second generation research into the B-24 Liberator <www.b24.net> [accessed 7 December 2010].
'The United States Air Force World War II Military Heritage Database', a searchable database of some air crews: <www.8thairforce.com> [accessed 7 December 2010].
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Description control area
Rules and/or conventions used