Série NCR 21f/1-109 - Manuscript collection of the antiquary John Kirkpatrick of Norwich, linen draper (1685-1728)

Zone d'identification

Cote

NCR 21f/1-109

Titre

Manuscript collection of the antiquary John Kirkpatrick of Norwich, linen draper (1685-1728)

Date(s)

  • 1559-1928 (Production)

Niveau de description

Série

Étendue matérielle et support

109 pieces

Zone du contexte

Nom du producteur

(1687-1728)

Notice biographique

Born in Haveringland to his Scottish father Thomas and Ann Kirkpatrick, John Kirkpatrick later moved with his parents to St Stephen's parish in Norwich, where his father continued a career in linen drapery. John, after an education that included a familiarity with, at least, Latin, became apprenticed to long-standing, Norwich linen merchant, Thomas Andrewes of St Clements. His elderly master, after a long career importing and selling linen from the Low Countries, died late in October 1709 (Andrewes' PCC will bequeathed £5 each to, 'his servants', John Kirkpatrick and John Thompson) the year before Kirkpatrick was admitted freeman and linen draper.
Kirkpatrick entered into a partnership with Alderman John Custance Esq. and their linen merchandizing business and Kirkpatrick's own home were situated in St Andrew's Broad Street. Contrary to Walter Rye's assertion that Kirkpatrick soon sold out his share of the business to Custance, Kirkpatrick's will, dated only the year before his early death, both anticipated the dangers of journeying by sea and described Custance as his, '… most esteemed friend and partner in merchandizing'. Custance cannot, moreover, have been fully occupied by the merchant trade, for he was elected mayor in 1726/7, having been sheriff in 1723/4. Custance wasn't, however, too busy to be appointed supervisor of the will. Kirkpatrick died, according to his monument in St Helen's Church where he was buried, on 20 August 1728, aged 42, having taken on the post of treasurer of the Great Hospital in c 1724.
Following his father into the linen drapery business, he found himself part of a close business and social community bound together by shared membership of the Presbyterian Church. His parents, siblings, old master and local business associates were all members of the Presbyterian Congregation in Colegate Street, Norwich (a congregation which was later to reform itself into the Unitarian Church at the Octagon Chapel). It appears that, at that time, there was a powerful association between membership of such churches and advancement in trade, and also, a generation after the Act of Toleration, with official and even aldermanic influence in the city.
He lived in St Andrews, Norwich. He was appointed treasurer of the Great Hospital.
Died 20 August 1728 and is buried by the altar steps in the church of St Helen, Norwich.

Nom du producteur

(1775-1858)

Notice biographique

Dawson Turner (1775-1858), banker, botanist, and antiquary, was born in Great Yarmouth, the son of James Turner, merchant and banker, and his wife, Elizabeth Cotman. He was educated at North Walsham Grammar School and Pembroke College, Cambridge, but left before taking his degree to join Gurney and Turner's Bank in Yarmouth. In 1794, he married Mary Palgrave of Yarmouth and Coltishall, Norfolk, with whom he had eleven children, of whom six daughters and two sons survived infancy. The key elements in his subsequent life were banking, family, and a studious disposition. His main passions were for botany and, later, for painting and antiquarian studies. He became an avid collector of literary and scientific books and manuscripts, as well as being an author of many works on antiquities and botany, especially cryptogamic plants. Throughout his life, he corresponded with many of the great botanists, antiquaries and artists of the day.

Nom du producteur

(c 1249-)

Histoire administrative

Established in c 1249 by the then Bishop of Norwich, Walter Suffield and originally known as the Hospital of the Blessed Mary and St Giles, and afterwards, simply as St Giles's Hospital, Norwich, in the parish of St Helen in Holmstrete, now Bishopgate in Norwich.
Formerly known as St Giles' Hospital, the Great Hospital in Norwich is still a functioning charitable, residential institution and its archives extend from the thirteenth century to the twentieth century. Prior to the Municipal Reform Act of 1835, the Mayor and Corporation acted as trustees for a large number of City charities. The most ancient was the Great Hospital (founded by Walter Suffield, Bishop of Norwich, in 1249), whose records are the largest and most complete of any of the City charities.
While most English hospitals were dissolved at the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the Great Hospital was one of very few which survived. On Henry VIII's death in 1547, it was surrendered to the new Protestant monarch, Edward VI. The Norwich city fathers, however, were sufficiently astute to recognize the important rôle which the Hospital might play in caring for the city's poor (who then posed a serious social problem). Edward VI succumbed to local pressure and returned the ownership of the Hospital and its possessions, land and property to the corporation, which then used it to prioritise and channel charitable work in the community. Thus, through its acquisition by the corporation, the Hospital continued to function and its records became part of the city archives.
By the terms of Edward VI's charter by letters patent in 1547, forty poor people were to be accommodated in the Hospital (then called 'God's House'), looked after by the keeper of the House and a team of four matrons or women keepers, but by the end of the century, the number had risen to 54. In 1633, owing to increased revenues, the numbers of inhabitants had increased to 86 though there were still only four women keepers. Seven years later, there were 95 inhabitants, looked after by five matrons. Of these inhabitants, the original 40 provided for by charter had been augmented by two paid for by legacies in Francis Rugg's will, two more by the will of Alderman Henry Fawcett and the remainder allowed by the mayor and aldermen because of the increase in revenues. Presumably finances were tight when in 1647, numbers were down to 71 and the team of matrons only four women, but by the early Commonwealth period, there were again 95 poor and five matrons. By 1685, a hundred poor folk were accommodated in the Hospital.
The Charity Commissioners finished their enquiry into the Norwich charities in 1833 and a copy of their printed report is to be found at N/TC 63/2. By a Chancery Order dated 18 March 1837, twenty-six Charity Trustees were appointed, with responsibility to manage the charities formerly in trust with the Corporation. The charities were divided into two lists: the Church List Charities (including the Great Hospital, the Free Grammar School, Archbishop Parker's Scholarships, the Preachers' Fund and various other smaller charities) and the General List Charities (including Doughty's Hospital, the Boys' Hospital, the Girls' Hospital, the Barnham Broom Estate and many other smaller charities).
A considerable number of charity records (many of them pre-1835) were deposited in the Record Office many years after the publication of Hudson and Tingey's Revised Catalogue of the Records of the City of Norwich in 1898. They interrelate with the records in the NCR collection and are listed at N/CCH and N/MC.
The medieval records of the Great Hospital were inscribed in the UNESCO UK Memory of the World Register in May 2011. The UK Memory of the World Register (established in 2010) helps to raise awareness of some of the UK’s exceptional, but lesser-known documentary riches by awarding them globally-recognised Memory of the World status.

Histoire archivistique

Source immédiate d'acquisition ou de transfert

Zone du contenu et de la structure

Portée et contenu

Born in Haveringland to his Scottish father Thomas and Ann Kirkpatrick, John Kirkpatrick later moved with his parents to St Stephen's parish in Norwich, where his father continued a career in linen drapery. John, after an education that included a familiarity with, at least, Latin, became apprenticed to long-standing, Norwich linen merchant, Thomas Andrewes of St Clements, Norwich. His elderly master, after a long career importing and selling linen from the Low Countries, died late in October 1709 (Andrewes' PCC will bequeathed £5 each to, 'his servants', John Kirkpatrick and John Thompson) the year before Kirkpatrick was admitted freeman and linen draper.

Kirkpatrick entered into a partnership with Alderman John Custance Esq.in 1717, and their linen merchandizing business and Kirkpatrick's own home were situated at 23-25 St Andrew's Broad Street. Contrary to Walter Rye's assertion that Kirkpatrick soon sold out his share of the business to Custance, Kirkpatrick's will, dated only the year before his early death, both anticipated the dangers of journeying by sea and described Custance as his, '… most esteemed friend and partner in merchandizing'. Custance cannot, moreover, have been concentrating on the merchant trade, for he was mayor in 1726/7, having been sheriff in 1723/4. Custance wasn't, however, too busy to be appointed supervisor of the will. Kirkpatrick died, according to his monument in St Helen's Church where he was buried, on 20 August 1728, aged 42, having occupied the post of treasurer and receiver of the rents and revenues of the Great Hospital since 1726.

Following his father into the linen drapery business, he found himself part of a close business and social community bound together by shared membership of the Presbyterian Church. His parents, siblings, old master and local business associates were all members of the Presbyterian Congregation in Colegate Street, Norwich (a congregation which was later to reform itself into the Unitarian Church at the Octagon Chapel). It appears that, at that time, there was a powerful association between membership of such churches and advancement in trade, and also, a generation after the Act of Toleration, with official and even aldermanic influence in the city.

Some of his business connections are hinted at by surviving original records either deliberately rescued by Kirkpatrick or accumulated and used by him as scrap paper for his notes. These notes were recorded on scraps of paper from various sources; a volume of copied text from an unidentified religious work in an earlier contemporary hand was a favourite source of writing paper, as were cut-up pieces of many copies of printed notices proposing the printing of the North-East prospect of Norwich in 1723-24. In addition, he occasionally used the wrappers for business correspondence (and, occasionally the dorse of the letters themselves) from his firm, Messrs John Custance and Kirkpatrick of St Andrews, Norwich, and also those of the firm of his brother's father-in-law, John Harvey, also a linen draper (Rye, and after him, Cozens-Hardy, stated that John had also married a Harvey daughter, but no evidence is cited by either to support the suggestion). Most significantly, the surviving collection includes at least two volumes of copy accounts, invoices and occasional correspondence relating to the business of Thomas Andrewes/Andrews, Kirkpatrick's old master in linen merchandizing. These, and the related specimen ledger dealing with the cloth trade with Amsterdam of 1630, and a compendia of cloth trade accounting (NCR 21f/88-94), are among the only textile business records currently held at the NRO dating from the 17th to early 18th-century Norwich (the only other known such records being the business records of Thomas Baret, cloth merchant of Norwich under the reference, MS 6360).

According to his will (NRO, NCC OW 106, 1728), these notes and other antiquities were left, at his sudden death, to his brother, Thomas Kirkpatrick, who shared his antiquarian interests. Thomas afterwards, was to be city chamberlain for twelve years and it was after his death in 1755, that these manuscripts came into the possession of the Corporation. Apparently, Kirkpatrick's collection suffered partial dispersion whilst in the city's care (with many of his notes passing into private hands and some ending up in the Colman and other local mss collections (the Colman and Bolyngbroke collections are also held by the NRO). The later antiquary, Walter Rye, writing in c 1913, states that the whereabouts of Kirkpatrick's mss collection was then unknown, yet Hudson and Tingey include reference to the collection in their revised catalogue of the Norwich City Records.

Apparently, Kirkpatrick had access to a wide range of the then available city records, including the original deeds, enrolled deeds and wills, early leets rolls, treasurers' accounts, Assembly and mayor's court books, langoll (landgable) rentals and the various volumes of precedent/evidences and the records of the Great Hospital. He also consulted the records of the Diocese of Norwich (perhaps indirectly through his acquaintance with the diocesan chancellor, Thomas Tanner) and those of the Dean and Chapter of Norwich, and also the private collections of other antiquaries.

The records surviving in in this collection were, we believe, mainly created by John Kirkpatrick himself, but it is possible that his brother, Thomas (the inheritor of John's notes about the history of Norwich) may have also contributed some records, and the notes (particularly some of the non-topographical ones) are occasionally written in a handwriting other than John Kirkpatrick's and may have been sent or given him by fellow antiquaries. It is known, for example, that a regular correspondence with Peter Le Neve took place, and certainly, Anthony Norris's initials appear on several mss while Benjamin Nobbs is cited by Kirkpatrick elsewhere as a source of information. And, in turn, later antiquaries used Kirkpatrick's collections to further their own work. Francis Blomefield in his, 'An Essay towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk', iv, 579-580, 2nd edn. (London, 1806) transcribed Kirkpatrick's memorial inscription and publicly acknowledged his use of the antiquarian notes of both Kirkpatrick and his friend Peter Le Neve, Norroy King of Arms, in compiling,' The History of the City and County of Norwich' (which appeared as volumes iii and iv of Blomefield's,'Topographical History of Norfolk') and which may then be considered, at least in part, the product of John Kirkpatrick's research into the history of Norwich.

Évaluation, élimination et calendrier de conservation

Accroissements

Mode de classement

Zone des conditions d'accès et d'utilisation

Conditions d’accès

Conditions de reproduction

Langue des documents

  • latin
  • anglais
  • français
  • néerlandais

Écriture des documents

Notes sur la langue et l'écriture

Caractéristiques matérielle et contraintes techniques

Many of the papers have suffered water and subsequent mould damage, and are frail with the contents of many files being unfit for production.

Instruments de recherche

Zone des sources complémentaires

Existence et lieu de conservation des originaux

Existence et lieu de conservation des copies

Unités de description associées

Examples of Kirkpatrick's notes and related material also survive in the Colman, Bolingbroke and in several other collections in the NRO.

Descriptions associées

Note de publication

Extracts printed in Hudson and Tingey, Records, ii. 404-413.
John Kirkpatrick, The Streets and Lanes of the City of Norwich: a Memoir by John Kirkpatrick, edited with notes and appendices by William Hudson (Norwich, 1889).
John Kirkpatrick, History of the religious orders and communities: and of the hospitals and Castle, of Norwich, with preface by Dawson Turner (Norwich, 1845).]

Zone des notes

Identifiant(s) alternatif(s)

Mots-clés

Mots-clés - Sujets

Mots-clés - Lieux

Mots-clés - Genre

Zone du contrôle de la description

Identifiant de la description

f43d1be7-3b50-4b7a-a292-1e2040cc20a1

Identifiant du service d'archives

Règles et/ou conventions utilisées

Statut

Catalogued

Niveau de détail

Dates de production, de révision, de suppression

Created 16/03/2007 by Droip. Modified 06/11/2019 by Catherine.Collins.

Sources

Zone des entrées