Great Hospital; c 1249-; Norwich, Norfolk

Identity area

Type of entity

Corporate body

Authorized form of name

Great Hospital; c 1249-; Norwich, Norfolk

Parallel form(s) of name

Standardized form(s) of name according to other rules

Other form(s) of name

  • Hospital of St Giles' or St Helen's Hospital, or, according to antiquary, Francis Blomefield, the 'old men's hospital' in the early 18th century

Identifiers for corporate bodies

Description area

Dates of existence

c 1249-

History

Established in c 1249 by the then Bishop of Norwich, Walter Suffield and originally known as the Hospital of the Blessed Mary and St Giles, and afterwards, simply as St Giles's Hospital, Norwich, in the parish of St Helen in Holmstrete, now Bishopgate in Norwich.
Formerly known as St Giles' Hospital, the Great Hospital in Norwich is still a functioning charitable, residential institution and its archives extend from the thirteenth century to the twentieth century. Prior to the Municipal Reform Act of 1835, the Mayor and Corporation acted as trustees for a large number of City charities. The most ancient was the Great Hospital (founded by Walter Suffield, Bishop of Norwich, in 1249), whose records are the largest and most complete of any of the City charities.
While most English hospitals were dissolved at the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the Great Hospital was one of very few which survived. On Henry VIII's death in 1547, it was surrendered to the new Protestant monarch, Edward VI. The Norwich city fathers, however, were sufficiently astute to recognize the important rôle which the Hospital might play in caring for the city's poor (who then posed a serious social problem). Edward VI succumbed to local pressure and returned the ownership of the Hospital and its possessions, land and property to the corporation, which then used it to prioritise and channel charitable work in the community. Thus, through its acquisition by the corporation, the Hospital continued to function and its records became part of the city archives.
By the terms of Edward VI's charter by letters patent in 1547, forty poor people were to be accommodated in the Hospital (then called 'God's House'), looked after by the keeper of the House and a team of four matrons or women keepers, but by the end of the century, the number had risen to 54. In 1633, owing to increased revenues, the numbers of inhabitants had increased to 86 though there were still only four women keepers. Seven years later, there were 95 inhabitants, looked after by five matrons. Of these inhabitants, the original 40 provided for by charter had been augmented by two paid for by legacies in Francis Rugg's will, two more by the will of Alderman Henry Fawcett and the remainder allowed by the mayor and aldermen because of the increase in revenues. Presumably finances were tight when in 1647, numbers were down to 71 and the team of matrons only four women, but by the early Commonwealth period, there were again 95 poor and five matrons. By 1685, a hundred poor folk were accommodated in the Hospital.
The Charity Commissioners finished their enquiry into the Norwich charities in 1833 and a copy of their printed report is to be found at N/TC 63/2. By a Chancery Order dated 18 March 1837, twenty-six Charity Trustees were appointed, with responsibility to manage the charities formerly in trust with the Corporation. The charities were divided into two lists: the Church List Charities (including the Great Hospital, the Free Grammar School, Archbishop Parker's Scholarships, the Preachers' Fund and various other smaller charities) and the General List Charities (including Doughty's Hospital, the Boys' Hospital, the Girls' Hospital, the Barnham Broom Estate and many other smaller charities).
A considerable number of charity records (many of them pre-1835) were deposited in the Record Office many years after the publication of Hudson and Tingey's Revised Catalogue of the Records of the City of Norwich in 1898. They interrelate with the records in the NCR collection and are listed at N/CCH and N/MC.
The medieval records of the Great Hospital were inscribed in the UNESCO UK Memory of the World Register in May 2011. The UK Memory of the World Register (established in 2010) helps to raise awareness of some of the UK’s exceptional, but lesser-known documentary riches by awarding them globally-recognised Memory of the World status.

Places

Norwich, Norfolk

Legal status

Charity

Functions, occupations and activities

Mandates/sources of authority

Internal structures/genealogy

General context

The medieval Hospital of St Giles was also at times called St Helen's Hospital after the patronymic of its chapel and parish church of St Helen situated in the hospital precinct. However, the text of the confirmation of the grant of the hospital to the Corporation of Norwich by Edward VI in 1547, stated that its official title from thenceforth was to be, 'Goddes Howse' or, 'the house of the poor people in Holmstreet...'.\r\nActually, references to 'God's House' as such, in the mayor's court or assembly minutes are few, but there are many references in those sources throughout the late 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries to, 'the hospital', as if there had been no question as to its identity and consequently, no need to distinguish it from any other charitable institution in the city.\r\nIt is not certain exactly when the phrase, 'the Great Hospital' came to be used, although examples of its use have been found in records from the later 17th century onwards. It seems likely that it was coined to distinguish this hospital from the children's hospital established under the terms of Thomas Anguish's will in 1617 (later to be known as the Boy's Hospital). 'God's House' remained the Great Hospital's official title in the annual accounts of its receiver (see N/MC 17/1-250) as recently as the late 1770s, although it seems unlikely that it was ever a popular title.\r\nFrancis Blomefield, writing in his History of Norwich in the early 18th century, claimed that the hospital was then also called, 'the old men's hospital', presumably, in clear distinction to those of the boys and girls, though, of course, the Edwardian establishment of 1547 admitted both men and women. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the hospital, possibly because of a renewed interest in its medieval origins, was again titled, at least in certain printed plans of the city of that date, 'St Helen's Hospital'.

Relationships area

Access points area

Occupations

Control area

Authority record identifier

GB/153/NM/7879

Institution identifier

Rules and/or conventions used

Status

Catalogued

Level of detail

Minimal

Dates of creation, revision and deletion

Created on: 10/06/2011 by Droip

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