- 1294-1397 (Creation)
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Formerly known as St Giles' Hospital, the Great Hospital in Norwich is still a functioning charitable, residential institution and its archives extend from the thirteenth century to the twentieth century. Prior to the Municipal Reform Act of 1835, the Mayor and Corporation acted as trustees for a large number of City charities. The most ancient was the Great Hospital (founded by Walter Suffield, Bishop of Norwich, in 1249), whose records are the largest and most complete of any of the City charities.
While most English hospitals were dissolved at the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the Great Hospital was one of very few which survived. On Henry VIII's death in 1547, it was surrendered to the new Protestant monarch, Edward VI. The Norwich city fathers, however, were sufficiently astute to recognize the important rôle which the Hospital might play in caring for the city's poor (who then posed a serious social problem). Edward VI succumbed to local pressure and returned the ownership of the Hospital and its possessions, land and property to the corporation, which then used it to prioritise and channel charitable work in the community. Thus, through its acquisition by the corporation, the Hospital continued to function and its records became part of the city archives.
By the terms of Edward VI's charter by letters patent in 1547, forty poor people were to be accommodated in the Hospital (then called 'God's House'), looked after by the keeper of the House and a team of four matrons or women keepers, but by the end of the century, the number had risen to 54. In 1633, owing to increased revenues, the numbers of inhabitants had increased to 86 though there were still only four women keepers. Seven years later, there were 95 inhabitants, looked after by five matrons. Of these inhabitants, the original 40 provided for by charter had been augmented by two paid for by legacies in Francis Rugg's will, two more by the will of Alderman Henry Fawcett and the remainder allowed by the mayor and aldermen because of the increase in revenues. Presumably finances were tight when in 1647, numbers were down to 71 and the team of matrons only four women, but by the early Commonwealth period, there were again 95 poor and five matrons. By 1685, a hundred poor folk were accommodated in the Hospital.
The Charity Commissioners finished their enquiry into the Norwich charities in 1833 and a copy of their printed report is to be found at N/TC 63/2. By a Chancery Order dated 18 March 1837, twenty-six Charity Trustees were appointed, with responsibility to manage the charities formerly in trust with the Corporation. The charities were divided into two lists: the Church List Charities (including the Great Hospital, the Free Grammar School, Archbishop Parker's Scholarships, the Preachers' Fund and various other smaller charities) and the General List Charities (including Doughty's Hospital, the Boys' Hospital, the Girls' Hospital, the Barnham Broom Estate and many other smaller charities).
A considerable number of charity records (many of them pre-1835) were deposited in the Record Office many years after the publication of Hudson and Tingey's Revised Catalogue of the Records of the City of Norwich in 1898. They interrelate with the records in the NCR collection and are listed at N/CCH and N/MC.
The medieval records of the Great Hospital were inscribed in the UNESCO UK Memory of the World Register in May 2011. The UK Memory of the World Register (established in 2010) helps to raise awareness of some of the UK’s exceptional, but lesser-known documentary riches by awarding them globally-recognised Memory of the World status.
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These include the earliest surviving accounts of the Hospital's income and operational expenses, both on their estates, including the costs associated with their patronage and rectorship of several parish churches and their priests, and on the administration of the Hospital site itself. Although referring to tithe income from several Norfolk churches, they rarely list rents and farm-payments from other properties in detail (though the maintenance costs for such buildings are accounted for), but include such items as the receipt of pensions and payments to support the common table at the hospital, the payment of servants' stipends, of allowances or stipends for the brothers and the purchase of food and fuel for store.
The accounts are not necessarily identified with any particular office, but include elements which later came to be diagnostic of the accounts of the several distinctive offices of the steward, receiver and supervisor/surveyor. The few surviving rolls from the 1380s-1390s were identified, for instance, as the accounts of Roger de Eton as surveyor at Costessey (in 1385) or of Sir Benedict, surveyor in the 1390s, and later (when Master) receiver of the revenues of the hospital, incidentally referencing the original separate origin of those two offices (later to be found in joint accounts). Two of these rolls, however, bear later endorsements, dating from the late sixteenth or early seventeenth centuries, labelling them as 'Domestic Accounts', although the office of steward (with which the later 'domestic' accounts were associated) is not mentioned as such in any of these rolls prior to the mid-fifteenth century (though see NCR 24a/142 for the draft accounts of steward, Geoffrey Hall, 1429-1433 and also NCR 24e/5/11 for the reference to, 'Sir Geffre [Halle], styward of seyntt gylis ospital', in the preface to John Boys' journal accounts of 1428-9).
Account rolls for years, 1294, 1316-17, 1319-1323, 1327-1329, 1329, 1330, 1331-1332, 1332, 1333-1336, 1338-9, 1341-1343, 1347-8, ?1353-1354, ? 1360s, 1375-6, 1385-6, 1390-1, 1393-4, Mar 1396-Jan 1397, and Jan-Sep 1397
See NCR 24c for bailiffs' accounts from individual manors.
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