Sub-fonds - 491st Bomb Group (Metfield, North Pickenham)

Identity area

Reference code

Title

491st Bomb Group (Metfield, North Pickenham)

Date(s)

  • 1944-1992 (Creation)

Level of description

Sub-fonds

Extent and medium

5 boxes; 1 photographic box

Context area

Name of creator

(1943-1945)

Administrative history

Part of the United States Army Air Force 2nd Air Division, 8th Air Force.
Constituted as the 491st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 September 1943. Activated on 1 October 1943. On 1 January 1944 the group, less the air echelon, was transferred without personnel and equipment to England, where personnel were assigned later. The air echelon joined the group in England in May 1944. Served in combat with 8th Air Force until the end of April 1945. Began operations early in June 1944. Returned to the United States in July 1945. Inactivated on 8 September 1945.
Based at North Pickenham, Norfolk, February 1944; Metfield, Suffolk, March 1944 ;and North Pickenham, Norfolk, 15 August 1944-June 1945.
Outline:
The 491st Bombardment Group was activated on 1 October 1943 at Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona (hereafter the 491st Bomb Group). On 1 January 1944, the Group, less the air echelon, was transferred without personnel and equipment to England, where personnel were assigned later. Many of its ground personnel came from four 2nd Air Division bomb groups already in England. The air crews trained in the United States at Biggs Field, Texas and at Pueblo, Colorado, before moving overseas on 21 April 1944. The air crews flew their B-24 Liberators to England via the southern route, which included stops in Florida, Brazil, and Morocco. The 491st Bomb Group was assigned to the 95th Combat Wing at Halesworth and stationed at Metfield, Suffolk (Army Air Force Station no. 366) from 25 April 1944-15 August 1944. On 15 August 1944, the 95th Combat Wing was broken up and the 491st Bomb Group was moved to North Pickenham airfield, Norfolk. They flew their first mission on 2 June 1944, against an airfield near Bretigney, France, and their last mission on 25 April 1945. During their period of service, they flew 187 missions, 5005 sorties and lost 47 aircraft in action. Redeployment to the United States began in June 1945. The B-24 Liberators were flown home, 17 June 1945-19 June 1945, and the ground crews left England for New York City on the ship the 'Queen Mary' on 6 July 1945. The 491st Bomb Group was then based at McChord Field until it was deactivated on 8 September 1945.
Key missions and events:
The Group began combat operations early in June 1944 and attacked airfields, bridges, and coastal defences both preceding and during the invasion of Normandy. It then concentrated its attacks on strategic objectives in Germany, striking communication points, oil refineries, storage depots, industrial areas, shipyards, and other targets in Berlin, Hamburg, Kassel, Cologne, Gelsenkirchen, Bielefeld, Hannover, and Magdeburg. On one occasion, the Group attacked the headquarters of the German General Staff at Zossen, Germany. During a mission against the oil refineries at Misburg, Germany, on 26 November 1944, the Group was attacked by large numbers of enemy fighters which destroyed almost half of its aeroplanes; the remainder successfully bombed the target and the Group was awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation. Although engaged primarily in strategic bombardment, the Group also supported ground forces at St Lo, France, in July 1944; assaulted V-weapon sites and communications lines in France during the summer of 1944; dropped supplies to ground troops on 18 September 1944, during the airborne attack in Holland (Netherlands); bombed German supply lines and fortifications during the Battle of the Bulge, December 1944-January 1945; supported Allied forces in the airborne drop across the Rhine in March 1945; and interdicted enemy communications during the Allied drive across Germany in April 1945.
On 15 July 1944, the bomb dump at Metfield blew up, detonating over 1000 tons of bombs and explosives, killing five men, wrecking five B-24 bombers and severely damaging several more.
Bomb Squadrons:
852nd Bomb Squadron: 1943-1945.
853nd Bomb Squadron: 1943-1945.
854th Bomb Squadron: 1943-1945.
855th Bomb Squadrons: 1943-1945.
Attached Units:
For a full list of attached units, see John Hane, 'Second Air Division Memorial: In memory of all those Americans who, flying from these bases and posts, gave their lives defending freedom, 1941-45' (Author, 1963). A reference copy is available in the Norfolk Record Office searchroom.
Stations:
Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona, 1 October 1943.
El Paso, Texas, 11 November 1943.
England, 1 January 1944.
North Pickenham, England, February 1944.
Metfield, England (Army Air Force Station no. 366), March 1944.
North Pickenham, England (Army Air Force Station no. 143), 15 August 1944-June 1945.
McChord Field, Washington, 17 July 1945-8 September 1945.
Group Commanders:
Col Dwight O. Monteith, 10 October 1943.
Maj. Jack G. Merrell, 20 December 1943.
Col Wilson H. Banks, 5 January 1944.
Maj. Alex E. Burleigh, 19 January 1944.
Lt Col Jack G. Merrell, 29 January 1944.
Lt Col Carl T. Goldenburg, 12 February 1944.
Col F.H. Miller, 26 June 1944.
Col Allen W. Reed, c. 20 October 1944-1945.
Major awards:
Distinguished Unit Citation: Misburg, Germany, 26 November 1944.

Archival history

Immediate source of acquisition or transfer

Content and structure area

Scope and content

This section contains records relating to the personnel and activities of the 491st Bomb Group, its associated Bomb Squadrons and ground crew of the airbases at Metfield, Suffolk and North Pickenham, Norfolk. It contains both original records and copies including official orders, crew lists, mission lists, mission diaries, memoirs, maps and news cuttings. Also contains correspondence, photographs and memorabilia.

Appraisal, destruction and scheduling

Accruals

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Conditions of access and use area

Conditions governing access

Conditions governing reproduction

The Norfolk Record Office requires the permission of the 2nd Air Division Memorial Trust Librarian before we can supply copies of any documents in this archive, copyright permitting. Please contact the 2nd Air Division Memorial Trust Librarian: e-mail 2admemorial.lib@norfolk.gov.uk; telephone, +44 (0) 01603 774747 and postal address, The 2nd Air Division (USAAF) Memorial Library, The Forum, Millennium Plain, Norwich, Norfolk, NR2 1AW, England.
If you are interested in copies of sound recordings in this archive, copying restrictions may apply. Please contact Norfolk Sound Archive staff for details: e-mail norfrec@norfolk.gov.uk; telephone, + 44 (0) 01603 222599 and postal address, Norfolk Record Office, The Archive Centre, Martineau Lane, Norwich, NR1 2DQ.

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Finding aids

Allied materials area

Existence and location of originals

Existence and location of copies

Related units of description

For movement orders relating to the 491st Bomb Group, see MC 371/353, MC 371/392 and MC 371/635.
For other photgraphs relating to the 491st Bomb Group in this archive, see MC 371/908/63, 68, 84-87.
For photographs of aeroplane nose art relating to this bomb group, see MC 376/352. For photographs of damaged aircraft, crashed aircraft and the Metfield bomb dump explosion, see MC 371/773.
For photographs of bomb group patches, see MC 371/826. For bomb group patches, see MC 371/840. For the 479th Sub Depot patch, see MC 371/834/2.
For records relating to the Headquarters career of Henry X. Dietch, who also served in this Bomb Group, see MC 371/616-623, MC 376/333 and MC 376/360.
For records of Jack H. Mooney (who served with the 479th Sub Depot which was attached to both the 491st and 492nd Bomb Group) including photographs of personnel and the Sub Depot patch, see MC 376/232 and MC 371/834/2.
The 2nd Air Division Memorial Library holdings include:
1) Microfilm from Maxwell Airforce Base: for the 491st Bomb Group, see BO651-652; for the 852nd, 853rd, 854th and 855th Bomb Squadrons of the 491st Bomb Group, see AO666.
2) Periodicals: 'Ringmasters Log', vol. 1 no. 1 (February 1988-).
3) Video tapes relating to the 491st Bomb Group are located in the video collection.

Related descriptions

Publication note

Select Bibliography:
Published Unit Histories: 'Ringmasters: History of the 491st Bombardment Group (H)' (Dallas, Taylor,1992). A reference copy of this publication is held at the Norfolk Record Office and there are also copies in the 2nd Air Division Memorial Library's collection, available through the Norfolk Library Service.
Websites giving further information about the 491st Bomb Group and on which this administrative history of the Group is based [accessed 4 August 2010]:
491st Bomb Group homepage: <http://www.491st.org/>.
8th Air Force in World War II presented by the Military History Group and Antique Militaria Network: <www.usaaf.com/8thaf/bomber/491bg.htm>.
Eighth Air Force Historical Society: <www.8thafhs.org/bomber/491bg.htm>.
The Heritage League of the 2nd Air Division <http://heritageleague.org/groups/491bg.htm>.
2nd Air Division Memorial Library: <www.2ndair.org.uk/Second_Air_Division/>.
United States Air Force World War II Military Heritage Database: <www.8thairforce.com/>.

Notes area

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Description control area

Description identifier

944187a0-e44f-4c53-bcb6-57535d15595c

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Rules and/or conventions used

Status

Catalogued

Level of detail

Dates of creation revision deletion

Created 26/07/2005 by Droip. Modified 03/01/2019 by Catherine.Collins.

Sources

Accession area